Appendix: Standard Thermodynamic Quantities for Chemical Substances at 25°C

Substance

ΔHf° (kJ/mol)

ΔGf° (kJ/mol)

S° (J/mol K)

Aluminum:

Al(s)

0.0

0.0

28.3

Al(g)

330.0

289.4

164.6

AlCl3(s)

−704.2

−628.8

109.3

Al2O3(s)

−1675.7

−1582.3

50.9

Barium:

Ba(s)

0.0

0.0

62.5

Ba(g)

180.0

146.0

170.2

BaO(s)

−548.0

−520.3

72.1

BaCO3(s)

−1213.0

−1134.4

112.1

BaSO4(s)

−1473.2

−1362.2

132.2

Beryllium:

Be(s)

0.0

0.0

9.5

Be(g)

324.0

286.6

136.3

Be(OH)2(s)

−902.5

−815.0

45.5

BeO(s)

−609.4

−580.1

13.8

Bismuth:

Bi(s)

0.0

0.0

56.7

Bi(g)

207.1

168.2

187.0

Bromine:

Br(g)

111.9

82.4

175.0

Br2(l)

0.0

0.0

152.2

Br(aq)

−121.6

−104.0

82.4

Br2(g)

30.9

3.1

245.5

HBr(g)

−36.3

−53.4

198.7

HBr(aq)

−121.6

−104.0

82.4

Cadmium:

Cd(s)

0.0

0.0

51.8

Cd(g)

111.8

167.7

CdCl2(s)

−391.5

−343.9

115.3

CdS(s)

−161.9

−156.5

64.9

Calcium:

Ca(s)

0.0

0.0

41.6

Ca(g)

177.8

144.0

154.9

CaCl2(s)

−795.4

−748.8

108.4

CaF2(s)

−1228.0

−1175.6

68.5

Ca(OH)2(s)

−985.2

−897.5

83.4

CaO(s)

−634.9

−603.3

38.1

CaSO4(s)

−1434.5

−1322.0

106.5

CaCO3(s, calcite)

−1207.6

−1129.1

91.7

CaCO3(s, aragonite)

−1207.8

−1128.2

88.0

Carbon:

C(s, graphite)

0.0

0.0

5.7

C(s, diamond)

1.9

2.9

2.4

C(s, fullerene—C60)

2327.0

2302.0

426.0

C(s, fullerene—C70)

2555.0

2537.0

464.0

C(g)

716.7

671.3

158.1

C(g, fullerene—C60)

2502.0

2442.0

544.0

C(g, fullerene—C70)

2755.0

2692.0

614.0

CBr4(s)

29.4

47.7

212.5

CBr4(g)

83.9

67.0

358.1

CCl2F2(g)

−477.4

−439.4

300.8

CCl2O(g)

−219.1

−204.9

283.5

CCl4(l)

−128.2

−62.6

216.2

CCl4(g)

−95.7

−53.6

309.9

CF4(g)

−933.6

−888.3

261.6

CHCl3(l)

−134.1

−73.7

201.7

CHCl3(g)

−102.7

6.0

295.7

CH2Cl2(l)

−124.2

177.8

CH2Cl2(g)

−95.4

−68.9

270.2

CH3Cl(g)

−81.9

−58.5

234.6

CH4(g)

−74.6

−50.5

186.3

CH3COOH(l)

−484.3

−389.9

159.8

CH3OH(l)

−239.2

−166.6

126.8

CH3OH(g)

−201.0

−162.3

239.9

CH3NH2(l)

−47.3

35.7

150.2

CH3NH2(g)

−22.5

32.7

242.9

CH3CN(l)

40.6

86.5

149.6

CH3CN(g)

74.0

91.9

243.4

CO(g)

−110.5

−137.2

197.7

CO2(g)

−393.5

−394.4

213.8

CS2(l)

89.0

64.6

151.3

CS2(g)

116.7

67.1

237.8

C2H2(g)

227.4

209.9

200.9

C2H4(g)

52.4

68.4

219.3

C2H6(g)

−84.0

−32.0

229.2

C3H8(g)

−103.8

−23.4

270.3

C3H6O3(s) (lactic acid)

−694.1

−522.9

142.3

C6H6(l)

49.1

124.5

173.4

C6H6(g)

82.9

129.7

269.2

C6H12O6(s) (glucose)

−1273.3

−910.4

212.1

C2H5OH(l)

−277.6

−174.8

160.7

C2H5OH(g)

−234.8

−167.9

281.6

(CH3)2O(l)

−203.3

(CH3)2O(g)

−184.1

−112.6

266.4

CH3CO2(aq)

−486.0

−369.3

86.6

n-C12H26(l) (dodecane)

−350.9

28.1

490.6

Cesium:

Cs(s)

0.0

0.0

85.2

Cs(g)

76.5

49.6

175.6

CsCl(s)

−443.0

−414.5

101.2

Chlorine:

Cl(g)

121.3

105.3

165.2

Cl2(g)

0.0

0.0

223.1

Cl(aq)

−167.2

−131.2

56.5

HCl(g)

−92.3

−95.3

186.9

HCl(aq)

−167.2

−131.2

56.5

ClF3(g)

−163.2

−123.0

281.6

Chromium:

Cr(s)

0.0

0.0

23.8

Cr(g)

396.6

351.8

174.5

CrCl3(s)

−556.5

−486.1

123.0

CrO3(g)

−292.9

266.2

Cr2O3(s)

−1139.7

−1058.1

81.2

Cobalt:

Co(s)

0.0

0.0

30.0

Co(g)

424.7

380.3

179.5

CoCl2(s)

−312.5

−269.8

109.2

Copper:

Cu(s)

0.0

0.0

33.2

Cu(g)

337.4

297.7

166.4

CuCl(s)

−137.2

−119.9

86.2

CuCl2(s)

−220.1

−175.7

108.1

CuO(s)

−157.3

−129.7

42.6

Cu2O(s)

−168.6

−146.0

93.1

CuS(s)

−53.1

−53.6

66.5

Cu2S(s)

−79.5

−86.2

120.9

CuCN(s)

96.2

111.3

84.5

Fluorine:

F(g)

79.4

62.3

158.8

F(aq)

−332.6

−278.8

−13.8

F2(g)

0.0

0.0

202.8

HF(g)

−273.3

−275.4

173.8

HF(aq)

−332.6

−278.8

−13.8

Hydrogen:

H(g)

218.0

203.3

114.7

H2(g)

0.0

0.0

130.7

H+(aq)

0.0

0.0

0.0

Iodine:

I(g)

106.8

70.2

180.8

I(aq)

−55.2

−51.6

111.3

I2(s)

0.0

0.0

116.1

I2(g)

62.4

19.3

260.7

HI(g)

26.5

1.7

206.6

HI(aq)

−55.2

−51.6

111.3

Iron:

Fe(s)

0.0

0.0

27.3

Fe(g)

416.3

370.7

180.5

Fe2+(aq)

−89.1

−78.9

−137.7

Fe3+(aq)

−48.5

−4.7

−315.9

FeCl2(s)

−341.8

−302.3

118.0

FeCl3(s)

−399.5

−334.0

142.3

FeO(s)

−272.0

−251.4

60.7

Fe2O3(s)

−824.2

−742.2

87.4

Fe3O4(s)

−1118.4

−1015.4

146.4

FeS2(s)

−178.2

−166.9

52.9

FeCO3(s)

−740.6

−666.7

92.9

Lead:

Pb(s)

0.0

0.0

64.8

Pb(g)

195.2

162.2

175.4

PbO(s, red or litharge)

−219.0

−188.9

66.5

PbO(s, yellow or massicot)

−217.3

−187.9

68.7

PbO2(s)

−277.4

−217.3

68.6

PbCl2(s)

−359.4

−314.1

136.0

PbS(s)

−100.4

−98.7

91.2

PbSO4(s)

−920.0

−813.0

148.5

PbCO3(s)

−699.1

−625.5

131.0

Pb(NO3)2(s)

−451.9

Pb(NO3)2(aq)

−416.3

−246.9

303.3

Lithium:

Li(s)

0.0

0.0

29.1

Li(g)

159.3

126.6

138.8

Li+(aq)

−278.5

−293.3

13.4

LiCl(s)

−408.6

−384.4

59.3

Li2O(s)

−597.9

−561.2

37.6

Magnesium:

Mg(s)

0.0

0.0

32.7

Mg(g)

147.1

112.5

148.6

MgCl2(s)

−641.3

−591.8

89.6

MgO(s)

−601.6

−569.3

27.0

Mg(OH)2(s)

−924.5

−833.5

63.2

MgSO4(s)

−1284.9

−1170.6

91.6

MgS(s)

−346.0

−341.8

50.3

Manganese:

Mn(s)

0.0

0.0

32.0

Mn(g)

280.7

238.5

173.7

MnCl2(s)

−481.3

−440.5

118.2

MnO(s)

−385.2

−362.9

59.7

MnO2(s)

−520.0

−465.1

53.1

KMnO4(s)

−837.2

−737.6

171.7

MnO4(aq)

−541.4

−447.2

191.2

Mercury:

Hg(l)

0.0

0.0

75.9

Hg(g)

61.4

31.8

175.0

HgCl2(s)

−224.3

−178.6

146.0

Hg2Cl2(s)

−265.4

−210.7

191.6

HgO(s)

−90.8

−58.5

70.3

HgS(s, red)

−58.2

−50.6

82.4

Hg2(g)

108.8

68.2

288.1

Molybdenum:

Mo(s)

0.0

0.0

28.7

Mo(g)

658.1

612.5

182.0

MoO2(s)

−588.9

−533.0

46.3

MoO3(s)

−745.1

−668.0

77.7

Nickel:

Ni(s)

0.0

0.0

29.9

Ni(g)

429.7

384.5

182.2

NiCl2(s)

−305.3

−259.0

97.7

Ni(OH)2(s)

−529.7

−447.2

88.0

Nitrogen:

N(g)

472.7

455.5

153.3

N2(g)

0.0

0.0

191.6

NH3(g)

−45.9

−16.4

192.8

NH4+(aq)

−132.5

−79.3

113.4

N2H4(l)

50.6

149.3

121.2

N2H4(g)

95.4

159.4

238.5

NH4Cl(s)

−314.4

−202.9

94.6

NH4OH(l)

−361.2

−254.0

165.6

NH4NO3(s)

−365.6

−183.9

151.1

(NH4)2SO4(s)

−1180.9

−901.7

220.1

NO(g)

91.3

87.6

210.8

NO2(g)

33.2

51.3

240.1

N2O(g)

81.6

103.7

220.0

N2O4(l)

−19.5

97.5

209.2

N2O4(g)

11.1

99.8

304.4

HNO2(g)

−79.5

−46.0

254.1

HNO3(l)

−174.1

−80.7

155.6

HNO3(g)

−133.9

−73.5

266.9

HNO3(aq)

−207.4

−111.3

146.4

NF3(g)

−132.1

−90.6

260.8

HCN(l)

108.9

125.0

112.8

HCN(g)

135.1

124.7

201.8

Osmium:

Os(s)

0.0

0.0

32.6

Os(g)

791.0

745.0

192.6

OsO4(s)

−394.1

−304.9

143.9

OsO4(g)

−337.2

−292.8

293.8

Oxygen:

O(g)

249.2

231.7

161.1

O2(g)

0.0

0.0

205.2

O3(g)

142.7

163.2

238.9

OH(aq)

−230.0

−157.2

−10.8

H2O(l)

−285.8

−237.1

70.0

H2O(g)

−241.8

−228.6

188.8

H2O2(l)

−187.8

−120.4

109.6

H2O2(g)

−136.3

−105.6

232.7

Phosphorus:

P(s, white)

0.0

0.0

41.1

P(s, red) −17.6

−17.6

−12.5

22.8

P(s, black)

−39.3

P(g, white)

316.5

280.1

163.2

P2(g)

144.0

103.5

218.1

P4(g)

58.9

24.4

280.0

PCl3(l)

−319.7

−272.3

217.1

PCl3(g)

−287.0

−267.8

311.8

POCl3(l)

−597.1

−520.8

222.5

POCl3(g)

−558.5

−512.9

325.5

PCl5(g)

−374.9

−305.0

364.6

PH3(g)

5.4

13.5

210.2

H3PO4(s)

−1284.4

−1124.3

110.5

H3PO4(l)

−1271.7

−1123.6

150.8

Potassium:

K(s)

0.0

0.0

64.7

K(g)

89.0

60.5

160.3

KBr(s)

−393.8

−380.7

95.9

KCl(s)

−436.5

−408.5

82.6

KClO3(s)

−397.7

−296.3

143.1

K2O(s)

−361.5

−322.1

94.1

K2O2(s)

−494.1

−425.1

102.1

KNO2(s)

−369.8

−306.6

152.1

KNO3(s)

−494.6

−394.9

133.1

KSCN(s)

−200.2

−178.3

124.3

K2CO3(s)

−1151.0

−1063.5

155.5

K2SO4(s)

−1437.8

−1321.4

175.6

Rubidium:

Rb(s)

0.0

0.0

76.8

Rb(g)

80.9

53.1

170.1

RbCl(s)

−435.4

−407.8

95.9

Selenium:

Se(s, gray)

0.0

0.0

42.4

Se(g, gray)

227.1

187.0

176.7

H2Se(g)

29.7

15.9

219.0

Silicon:

Si(s)

0.0

0.0

18.8

Si(g)

450.0

405.5

168.0

SiCl4(l)

−687.0

−619.8

239.7

SiCl4(g)

−657.0

−617.0

330.7

SiH4(g)

34.3

56.9

204.6

SiC(s, cubic)

−65.3

−62.8

16.6

SiC(s, hexagonal)

−62.8

−60.2

16.5

Silver:

Ag(s)

0.0

0.0

42.6

Ag(g)

284.9

246.0

173.0

Ag+(aq)

105.6

77.1

72.7

AgBr(s)

−100.4

−96.9

107.1

AgCl(s)

−127.0

−109.8

96.3

AgNO3(s)

−124.4

−33.4

140.9

Ag2O(s)

−31.1

−11.2

121.3

Ag2S(s)

−32.6

−40.7

144.0

Sodium:

Na(s)

0.0

0.0

51.3

Na(g)

107.5

77.0

153.7

Na+(aq)

−240.1

−261.9

59.0

NaF(s)

−576.6

−546.3

51.1

NaF(aq)

−572.8

−540.7

45.2

NaCl(s)

−411.2

−384.1

72.1

NaCl(aq)

−407.3

−393.1

115.5

NaBr(s)

−361.1

−349.0

86.8

NaBr(g)

−143.1

−177.1

241.2

NaBr(aq)

−361.7

−365.8

141.4

NaO2(s)

−260.2

−218.4

115.9

Na2O(s)

−414.2

−375.5

75.1

Na2O2(s)

−510.9

−447.7

95.0

NaCN(s)

−87.5

−76.4

115.6

NaNO3(aq)

−447.5

−373.2

205.4

NaNO3(s)

−467.9

−367.0

116.5

NaN3(s)

21.7

93.8

96.9

Na2CO3(s)

−1130.7

−1044.4

135.0

Na2SO4(s)

−1387.1

−1270.2

149.6

Sulfur:

S(s, rhombic)

0.0

0.0

32.1

S(g, rhombic)

277.2

236.7

167.8

SO2(g)

−296.8

−300.1

248.2

SO3(g)

−395.7

−371.1

256.8

SO42−(aq)

−909.3

−744.5

20.1

SOCl2(g)

−212.5

−198.3

309.8

H2S(g)

−20.6

−33.4

205.8

H2SO4(aq)

−909.3

−744.5

20.1

Tin:

Sn(s, white)

0.0

0.0

51.2

Sn(s, gray)

−2.1

0.1

44.1

Sn(g, white)

301.2

266.2

168.5

SnCl4(l)

−511.3

−440.1

258.6

SnCl4(g)

−471.5

−432.2

365.8

SnO2(s)

−557.6

−515.8

49.0

Titanium:

Ti(s)

0.0

0.0

30.7

Ti(g)

473.0

428.4

180.3

TiCl2(s)

−513.8

−464.4

87.4

TiCl3(s)

−720.9

−653.5

139.7

TiCl4(l)

−804.2

−737.2

252.3

TiCl4(g)

−763.2

−726.3

353.2

TiO2(s)

−944.0

−888.8

50.6

Uranium:

U(s)

0.0

0.0

50.2

U(g)

533.0

488.4

199.8

UO2(s)

−1085.0

−1031.8

77.0

UO2(g)

−465.7

−471.5

274.6

UF4(s)

−1914.2

−1823.3

151.7

UF4(g)

−1598.7

−1572.7

368.0

UF6(s)

−2197.0

−2068.5

227.6

UF6(g)

−2147.4

−2063.7

377.9

Vanadium:

V(s)

0.0

0.0

28.9

V(g)

514.2

754.4

182.3

VCl3(s)

−580.7

−511.2

131.0

VCl4(l)

−569.4

−503.7

255.0

VCl4(g)

−525.5

−492.0

362.4

V2O5(s)

−1550.6

−1419.5

131.0

Zinc:

Zn(s)

0.0

0.0

41.6

Zn(g)

130.4

94.8

161.0

ZnCl2(s)

−415.1

−369.4

111.5

Zn(NO3)2(s)

−483.7

ZnS(s, sphalerite)

−206.0

−201.3

57.7

ZnSO4(s)

−982.8

−871.5

110.5

Zirconium:

Zr(s)

0.0

0.0

39.0

Zr(g)

608.8

566.5

181.4

ZrCl2(s)

−502.0

−386

110

ZrCl4(s)

−980.5

−889.9

181.6

From UC Davis Chem Wiki (creative commons licence): UC Davis GeoWiki by University of California, Davis. CC-BY-NC-SA-3.0

Original Source of data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,84th Edition (2004).

 

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Introductory Chemistry – 1st Canadian / NSCC Edition by David W. Ball and Jessie A. Key is an adapted version of the open textbook Introductory Chemistry – 1st Canadian and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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