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Study Guide: Childhood
Study Guide for Exam Two:
Characterize physical growth for the first two years. Be sure to include a description of the ways the brain develops.
Describe the newborn’s sensory abilities.
Give examples of gross and fine motor skills during the first two years. Then consider the kinds of motor skills being developed during preschool and middle childhood.
What are some nutritional concerns during infancy? What is marasmus? Kwashiorkor?
Characterize physical growth in early childhood.
What are some nutritional concerns during the preschool (play) years? What happens to appetite from ages 2-6? What are the chief concerns during middle childhood in terms of nutrition?
Explain Piaget’s theory of cognitive development for childhood. Include the substages of sensorimotor intelligence, preoperational intelligence (including animism, egocentrism, centration), and concrete operational intelligence (including identity, reversibility, conservation). Remember assimilation and accommodation.
Use Erikson’s theory to explain psychosocial development from birth through childhood. Four stages or ‘crises’ comprise childhood (trust vs. mistrust etc.)
Explain language development from birth through childhood. Include ideas such as babbling, first words, holophrasic speech, overregularization, etc.
Recall Vygotsky’s theory of sociocultural development. What is private speech?
Explain theories of language development.
Describe emotional development in the first year. Also, what is separation anxiety? Stranger wariness? When do these occur?
What is self-awareness? Theory of mind? When do these changes occur? Why are these significant for development?
Define temperament and goodness of fit.
Contrast styles of attachment.
Explain Baumrind’s parenting styles. Describe Lemasters and Defrain’s model. What impact does culture play in parenting styles?
What is the society/culture of children?
Define family capital. What is meant by the “hidden curriculum” in school?
Contrast theories of self from Cooley and Mead.
Discuss the impact of stress on development.
What is false self-training?
Summarize theories of gender role development.
Describe the developmental stages of stepfamilies.
What conclusion is made when examining family structure (intact, single-parent, etc.) and the impact structure has on children? What helps children make their way through stressful situations?
Explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.
Compare aptitude and achievement tests. Explain Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences and Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences.