Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials

[latexpage]

Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
Half-Reaction E° (V)
\({\text{Ag}}^{+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ag}\) +0.7996
\(\text{AgCl}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ag}+{\text{Cl}}^{-}\) +0.22233
\({\left[\text{Ag}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{2}\right]}^{-}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ag}+2{\text{CN}}^{-}\) −0.31
\({\text{Ag}}_{2}{\text{CrO}}_{4}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2\text{Ag}+{\text{CrO}}_{4}{}^{2-}\) +0.45
\({\left[\text{Ag}{\left({\text{NH}}_{3}\right)}_{2}\right]}^{+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ag}+2{\text{NH}}_{3}\) +0.373
\({\left[\text{Ag}{\left({\text{S}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\right)}_{2}\right]}^{3+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ag}+{\text{2S}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}{}^{2-}\) +0.017
\({\left[{\text{AlF}}_{6}\right]}^{3-}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Al}+6{\text{F}}^{-}\) −2.07
\({\text{Al}}^{3+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Al}\) −1.662
\({\text{Am}}^{3+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Am}\) −2.048
\({\text{Au}}^{3+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Au}\) +1.498
\({\text{Au}}^{+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Au}\) +1.692
\({\text{Ba}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ba}\) −2.912
\({\text{Be}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Be}\) −1.847
\({\text{Br}}_{2}\left(aq\right)+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{Br}}^{-}\) +1.0873
\({\text{Ca}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ca}\) −2.868
\({\text{Ce}}^{3}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ce}\) −2.483
\({\text{Ce}}^{4+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Ce}}^{3+}\) +1.61
\({\text{Cd}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cd}\) −0.4030
\({\left[\text{Cd}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cd}+4{\text{CN}}^{-}\) −1.09
\({\left[\text{Cd}{\left({\text{NH}}_{3}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cd}+4{\text{NH}}_{3}\) −0.61
\(\text{CdS}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cd}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −1.17
\({\text{Cl}}_{2}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{Cl}}^{-}\) +1.35827
\({\text{ClO}}_{4}{}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{ClO}}_{3}{}^{-}+2{\text{OH}}^{-}\) +0.36
\({\text{ClO}}_{3}{}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{ClO}}_{2}{}^{-}+2{\text{OH}}^{-}\) +0.33
\({\text{ClO}}_{2}{}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{ClO}}^{-}+2{\text{OH}}^{-}\) +0.66
\({\text{ClO}}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Cl}}^{-}+2{\text{OH}}^{-}\) +0.89
\({\text{ClO}}_{4}{}^{-}+2{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{ClO}}_{3}{}^{-}+3{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.189
\({\text{ClO}}_{3}{}^{-}+3{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{HClO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.21
\(\text{HClO}+{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Cl}}^{-}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.482
\(\text{HClO}+{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{2}{\text{Cl}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.611
\({\text{HClO}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{HClO}+3{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.628
\({\text{Co}}^{3+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Co}}^{2+}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\left(2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{//}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}_{2}{\text{SO}}_{4}\right)\) +1.83
\({\text{Co}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Co}\) −0.28
\({\left[\text{Co}{\left({\text{NH}}_{3}\right)}_{6}\right]}^{3+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\left[\text{Co}{\left({\text{NH}}_{3}\right)}_{6}\right]}^{2+}\) +0.1
\(\text{Co}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{3}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Co}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\text{OH}}^{-}\) +0.17
\({\text{Cr}}^{3}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cr}\) −0.744
\({\text{Cr}}^{3+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Cr}}^{2+}\) −0.407
\({\text{Cr}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cr}\) −0.913
\({\left[\text{Cu}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{2}\right]}^{-}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cu}+2{\text{CN}}^{-}\) −0.43
\({\text{CrO}}_{4}{}^{2-}+4{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\text{Cr}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{3}+5{\text{OH}}^{-}\) −0.13
\({\text{Cr}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{7}{}^{2-}+14{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+6{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{Cr}}^{3+}+21{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.232
\({\left[\text{Cr}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{-}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cr}+4{\text{OH}}^{-}\) −1.2
\(\text{Cr}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{3}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cr}+3{\text{OH}}^{-}\) −1.48
\({\text{Cu}}^{2+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Cu}}^{+}\) +0.153
\({\text{Cu}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cu}\) +0.34
\({\text{Cu}}^{+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Cu}\) +0.521
\({\text{F}}_{2}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{F}}^{-}\) +2.866
\({\text{Fe}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Fe}\) −0.447
\({\text{Fe}}^{3+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Fe}}^{2+}\) +0.771
\({\left[\text{Fe}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{6}\right]}^{3-}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\left[\text{Fe}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{6}\right]}^{4-}\) +0.36
\(\text{Fe}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Fe}+2{\text{OH}}^{-}\) −0.88
\(\text{FeS}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Fe}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −1.01
\({\text{Ga}}^{3+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ga}\) −0.549
\({\text{Gd}}^{3+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Gd}\) −2.279
\(\frac{1}{2}{\text{H}}_{2}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}^{-}\) −2.23
\(2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}_{2}+2{\text{OH}}^{-}\) −0.8277
\({\text{H}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}4{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.776
\(2{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) 0.00
\({\text{HO}}_{2}{}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}3{\text{OH}}^{-}\) +0.878
\({\text{Hf}}^{4+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Hf}\) −1.55
\({\text{Hg}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Hg}\) +0.851
\(2{\text{Hg}}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}\) +0.92
\({\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2\text{Hg}\) +0.7973
\({\left[{\text{HgBr}}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Hg}+4{\text{Br}}^{-}\) +0.21
\({\text{Hg}}_{2}{\text{Cl}}_{2}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2\text{Hg}+2{\text{Cl}}^{-}\) +0.26808
\({\left[\text{Hg}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Hg}+{\text{4CN}}^{-}\) −0.37
\({\left[{\text{HgI}}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Hg}+{\text{4I}}^{-}\) −0.04
\(\text{HgS}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Hg}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −0.70
\({\text{I}}_{2}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{2I}}^{-}\) +0.5355
\({\text{In}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{In}\) −0.3382
\({\text{K}}^{\text{+}}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{K}\) −2.931
\({\text{La}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{La}\) −2.52
\({\text{Li}}^{\text{+}}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Li}\) −3.04
\({\text{Lu}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Lu}\) −2.28
\({\text{Mg}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Mg}\) −2.372
\({\text{Mn}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Mn}\) −1.185
\({\text{MnO}}_{2}+{\text{2H}}_{2}\text{O}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Mn}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\text{2OH}}^{-}\) −0.05
\({\text{MnO}}_{4}{}^{-}+{\text{2H}}_{2}\text{O}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{MnO}}_{2}+{\text{4OH}}^{-}\) +0.558
\({\text{MnO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{Mn}}^{2+}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.23
\({\text{MnO}}_{4}{}^{-}+8{\text{H}}^{+}+5{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{Mn}}^{2+}+4{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.507
\({\text{Na}}^{\text{+}}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Na}\) −2.71
\({\text{Nd}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Nd}\) −2.323
\({\text{Ni}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ni}\) −0.257
\({\left[\text{Ni}{\left({\text{NH}}_{3}\right)}_{6}\right]}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ni}+{\text{6NH}}_{3}\) −0.49
\({\text{NiO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{Ni}}^{2+}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.593
\({\text{NiO}}_{2}+{\text{2H}}_{2}\text{O}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ni}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\text{2OH}}^{-}\) +0.49
\(\text{NiS}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ni}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) +0.76
\({\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}⟶\text{NO}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +0.957
\({\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}+3{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{HNO}}_{2}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +0.92
\({\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{-}+{\text{2OH}}^{-}\) +0.10
\({\text{Np}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Np}\) −1.856
\({\text{O}}_{2}+{\text{2H}}_{2}\text{O}+{\text{4e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{4OH}}^{-}\) +0.401
\({\text{O}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{H}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{2}\) +0.695
\({\text{O}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}⟶2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.229
\({\text{Pb}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pb}\) −0.1262
\({\text{PbO}}_{2}+{\text{SO}}_{4}{}^{\text{2−}}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{PbSO}}_{4}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +1.69
\(\text{PbS}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pb}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −0.95
\({\text{PbSO}}_{4}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pb}+{\text{SO}}_{4}{}^{2-}\) −0.3505
\({\text{Pd}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pd}\) +0.987
\({\left[{\text{PdCl}}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pd}+{\text{4Cl}}^{-}\) +0.591
\({\text{Pt}}^{2+}\text{}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pt}\) +1.20
\({\left[{\text{PtBr}}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pt}+{\text{4Br}}^{-}\) +0.58
\({\left[{\text{PtCl}}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pt}+{\text{4Cl}}^{-}\) +0.755
\({\left[{\text{PtCl}}_{6}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\left[{\text{PtCl}}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2Cl}}^{-}\) +0.68
\({\text{Pu}}^{3}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Pu}\) −2.03
\({\text{Ra}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ra}\) −2.92
\({\text{Rb}}^{\text{+}}+{\text{e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Rb}\) −2.98
\({\left[{\text{RhCl}}_{6}\right]}^{3-}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Rh}+{\text{6Cl}}^{-}\) +0.44
\(\text{S}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −0.47627
\(\text{S}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{H}}_{2}\text{S}\) +0.142
\({\text{Sc}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Sc}\) −2.09
\(\text{Se}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}⟶{\text{H}}_{2}\text{Se}\) −0.399
\({\left[{\text{SiF}}_{6}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{4e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Si}+{\text{6F}}^{-}\) −1.2
\({\text{SiO}}_{3}{}^{\text{2−}}\text{}+{\text{3H}}_{2}\text{O}+{\text{4e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Si}+{\text{6OH}}^{-}\) −1.697
\({\text{SiO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}⟶\text{Si}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) −0.86
\({\text{Sm}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Sm}\) −2.304
\({\text{Sn}}^{4+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Sn}}^{2+}\) +0.151
\({\text{Sn}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Sn}\) −0.1375
\({\left[{\text{SnF}}_{6}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{4e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Sn}+{\text{6F}}^{-}\) −0.25
\(\text{SnS}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Sn}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −0.94
\({\text{Sr}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Sr}\) −2.89
\({\text{TeO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}⟶\text{Te}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\) +0.593
\({\text{Th}}^{4+}+{\text{4e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Th}\) −1.90
\({\text{Ti}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Ti}\) −1.630
\({\text{U}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{U}\) −1.79
\({\text{V}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{V}\) −1.19
\({\text{Y}}^{3+}+{\text{3e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Y}\) −2.37
\({\text{Zn}}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zn}\) −0.7618
\({\left[\text{Zn}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{2-}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zn}+{\text{4CN}}^{-}\) −1.26
\({\left[\text{Zn}{\left({\text{NH}}_{3}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{2+}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zn}+{\text{4NH}}_{3}\) −1.04
\(\text{Zn}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zn}+{\text{2OH}}^{-}\) −1.245
\({\left[\text{Zn}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{4}\right]}^{2}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zn}+{\text{4OH}}^{-}\) −1.199
\(\text{ZnS}+{\text{2e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zn}+{\text{S}}^{2-}\) −1.40
\({\text{Zr}}^{4}+{\text{4e}}^{-}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Zr}\) −1.539

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Atoms First / OpenStax by OSCRiceUniversity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book